Is it possible to use ADFS Authentication with a Microsoft Exchange 2016 Server? Sure!
A customer asked me that question a few days ago; they have mailboxes on premises and on Exchange Online. ADFS cloud to provide a great way to bring the same login experience to both.

Here are two GIST Files that configured everything for them 😉

The files above are part of my configuration script, but the only part missing is all the central connection stuff. I used one script that connects to all envolved systems via Remote PowerShell and excecute everything a one big script.